奎屯市临终助念小结

奎屯市临终助念小结

南无阿弥陀佛!诸位老师,诸位同修大德,大家好!

       今天是4月30日,我们把这十天来为两位临终人的助念,做一个小结。主要是觉察这十天的临终助念中,我们在帮助临终人依教实修真信,实现有真信切愿的念佛,还存在哪些问题。首先感恩张局长和李老师在莲华寺为助念做妥善的安排,并在佛七中组织同修为临终人念佛回向。李老师在百忙中,随时关心临终助念的进展,对此,我们表示衷心地感谢。

       临终助念,就是助念人依据佛祖的教诲,帮助临终人实修真信,实现有真信切愿的念佛,这就是临终助念中的令生正信。正信,即真信。证得正等正觉的佛所教诲净业学人必须所信,就是正信。净土宗祖师所说之信,是诸佛诸祖所共说。所以真信和真信之修,必须依祖师的教诲而信和修信。我们是恶习深重,根机陋劣的重碟造恶之人,在临终助念中,要天天察找不是实修真信的过失,要时时改正过失,绝不可凭我的邪知妄见,随便为临终人作令生正信之修。

       真信,信什么?印光大师教诲“所言信者,须信娑婆实实是苦,极乐实实是乐”。检验真信之修的标准是什么?善导大师教诲“若深信生死苦者,罪业毕竟不重犯。若深信净土无为乐者,善心一发永无退失也”《散善义》。

       娑婆的生死之苦,无量无边,信娑婆的生死之苦,具体信什么?印光大师教诲“吾人所居世界,则具足三苦八苦。无量诸苦,了无有乐”。又教诲“此世界苦,说不能尽,以三苦八苦,包括无遗”《初机净业指南》。临终助念,就是帮助临终人把平时之修,结合临终时所现的随顺自己的恶习,真见和真信这些恶习,是使自己造堕地狱业的生死之苦。临终念佛发愿我绝不堕地狱,一定要往生西方,绝不只是念佛,而是要舍尽造恶的恶习,在厌舍生死苦中,生起真为生死的真心,以此真实心而猛切念佛,这就是善导大师教诲的“知苦失念”。失念,就是舍离生死苦而念佛。祖师的教诲告诫我们,必须真知三苦八苦是自己往生西方的生死之苦。在真知生死苦后,必须真舍生死苦,有了真知和真舍的实修,才能有至诚恳切,如子忆母念佛的实行。

       印光大师教诲“信愿行三法,为净土正宗。第一要有真信。有真信,必定有真愿真行。否则不名真信”《复林圃居士书》。在这次临终助念中的真信之修,我们的实修,主要有以下几个方面。

       第一,助念人必须先见临终人的生死苦,就是自己的生死苦。先度自己,才能帮助临终人实修真信。

       4月20日,我们为小杨小赵两师兄的妈妈助念。杨师兄的妈妈是多年的念佛人,发心今生一定要念佛求生西方的愿也很坚定。不管在病苦中还是在平时,都能牢记“我一定要往生西方”。他的念佛就是一句佛号,不令间断。从这些修持的形式看,是不是真信之修呢?不是。因为他的念佛,是在随顺我和满足我的习气而发愿和念佛,是真心地为我这个身,为我生活的满足。若稍稍有不能随顺我,就起嗔心和怨恨心。他有我和真为我的心是真心。他为了脱生死,求生西方的心,是虚假信。例如,

       在临终前,他因病在奎屯市医院住院治疗,又要求转石河子医学院附属医院住院治疗。得知医院不能医治自己的病,才转念要求助念求生西方。由于信不真,心无正念,就必定感招过去世无量劫中所结的怨业现前,使自己被怨业缠身,遭受种种恶报。印光大师教诲“正念存而举措得当,真神定而邪鬼莫侵。否则以邪招邪,宿怨咸至。遇事无主,举措全失,可不哀哉”《复同影居士书》。他们在真信之修中,是否真怕因信不真,心无正念而感召过去世的怨业全部现前,致使自己遇事无主,举措全失呢?不怕。由于不怕,既不能见自己被怨业缠身所遭受的恶报,同时还在恶报中,随顺自己的毛病习气,任意地造恶。例如,小杨的妈妈,在出院后请求助念,却难找到助念的人,难找助念的场地,难得到家人对助念的支持。即使得到助念的道场和助念的人,也难顺利展开助念。所有这些恶报,都是自己心无正念所致,并不是助念人和家人不真心为他助念。

       经过艰难地努力,总算有了助念的道场和助念的人,可他自己并不珍惜,即使知道自己将近临终,却在随顺自己的恶习,贪吃贪喝贪睡。稍有不如意,就起嗔心。这种放纵恶习造恶,就是以满足我为目的。如睡,就要舒服地睡够;吃喝,是不断地要,总不能满足。虽然也在不断地发愿,不断地念佛求生西方,但是,因心无正念,是在随顺我和满足我的欲望中造恶不断。纵然发愿和念佛,他不是真的在为了脱生死。心念中,不是真有西方,而是真有我的欲望。一心有我,一心为我,这发愿,不是真信中的真愿;念佛,不是有真信切愿的念佛。

       助念人必须真见临终人因信不真,不能依教实修真信,就必定感招宿世怨业,全部现前,使临终人在身口意三业中,放纵恶习任意造恶而难醒悟的事实。临终将至,死在眼前而造恶不断,这是把无量劫所造恶业,在今生临终时的重复和累加,致使自己的神识,随业受生而堕地狱。虽未断气,而神婴被恶业所牵,已成定局。

       有人说开示,要他万缘放下,一心念佛,求生西方。不要说此时的临终人在恶报中不能万缘放下,助念人能否做到万缘放下?做不到。面对临终人的危难时刻,助念人首先要真见临终人的生死苦,以临终人随顺恶习任意造恶遭恶报的事实,联系自己在真信之修中,也有和临终人相同的恶习和造恶,其果报,和临终人一样堕地狱。我们看到了自己临终时的恶报,在堕地狱苦境的逼迫下,生起真为生死之心,以真为生死的真心,见自己的生死苦和舍生死苦。在舍生死苦中,至诚念佛求生西方。临终助念中的自度度他,绝不只是能发现临终人在念佛中的恶习和提示他要舍恶习而念佛,而是重在见自己的生死苦即三苦八苦,与临终人所现的三苦八苦有什么不同。如两位临终人中,楼下的临终人,虽然从前天舍喝水到今天,已经不用要喝水了。可是在他不断地念佛中,一阵阵的难受和病痛,使他一会躺下,一会坐起。虽然已经无力起身和躺下,无力用手撑着移动坐姿,他也要不顾一切,竭尽全力,来满足一时的舒服。他发大愿一定要往生西方,为什么在临终恶业聚现中,不是振作精神,奋力舍贪身而猛切念佛,而是为随顺我和满足我身的舒适,身不由己地造堕地狱业?再看楼上那位临终人,因心痛,全身缩成一团,不能念佛。两位临终人因贪身,在死苦现前的逆境中丢失正念。在平时的顺境中,为什么不见和不舍三苦八苦之死苦呢?由此联系自己,我在平时的顺境中,在现在的临终助念中,我是不是和临终人的平时之修是一样?能真见临终人的地狱苦就是自己的地狱苦现前。在地狱苦的逼迫下,能实现帮助临终人舍贪身的生死苦而猛切念佛求生西方,这样的实修,才是在临终助念中的自度度他。若不能自度,要度临终人有信愿的念佛,是绝难成功的。

       第二,临终助念,是以帮助临终人令生正念,实现有真信切愿而念佛为目的,绝不是单以念佛为目的。这令生正念的真信之修,必须依佛祖的教诲实修实得。真信之修,重在舍贪嗔痴的恶习。而临终人在舍贪嗔痴的恶习中,很难舍尽。其恶习总是不断地重犯。例如楼下的临终人,念佛能做到常念不断,可在念佛中,因病苦和难受,使他心燥不安,一会睡下,一会起身,使自己得到短暂的舒服。求舒服,是贪身的念佛,果报不在西方。他不断在难受中求舒服,就是不停地在造堕地狱的恶业。问他怕不怕堕地狱?他说怕。我一定舍尽恶习。可他坚持了一会,又在挣扎中艰难地重复坐起来和睡下去。告诉他,你命都不要了,难道还求那一时的舒服?你死都不怕,难道还怕临终前的难受?如果要真心地念佛求生西方,难受和舒服,就是怕死和贪身,是自己的生死苦,都要不顾生命地舍尽。他能理解,但做不到。这是因为信不真所致

       针对真信之修中,临终人信不真的问题,对其令生正信的助念,绝不只是口说,而是要守护在临终人的身边,苦口婆心地提示他,要他死死守定,绝不随顺病痛难受而求舒服。越是艰难,我念佛求生西方的念佛就越猛切。临终助念中帮助临终人实修真信,就是不断地帮助临终人在舍尽生死苦中,生起真为生死之真心而猛切念佛。

       由于我们是初学,依教帮助临终人令生正信的体会,还有很多不如法的,祈请诸位老师,同修,大德指教。

南无阿弥陀佛!

                                      印光大师文钞修学组合十敬上

                                         菩萨戒弟子德道恭敬整理

                                                 2016年5月9日

 

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